Cryogenic manufactures cryogenic equipment, measurement systems, cryostats and superconducting magnets including cryogen free systems.

TalaveraScience is the senior sales consultancy for Cryogenic Ltd.

Cryogenic Ltd has been a pioneer of cryogen free superconducting magnets and cryostats for a variety of applications for more than 20 years and with around 200 products installed. Taking advantage of the availability of cost effective coldheads such as the Gifford-McMahon (GM) and, more recently, the pulse tube (PT) cryocoolers to develop applications such as DC SQUID magnetomers, VSM systems, superconducting magnets for many types of applications such as X-ray systems, beam-line magnets, vector magnets, gyrotron magnets, desk top superconducting magnets, dissolution DNP magnets, high field EPR magnets, W-band EPR magnets, EPR Cryostats, MRI magnets, wideline NMR magnets and high resolution solid state NMR magnets.

Cryogen free technologies suit superconducting magnets where the ability to sweep or switch the field is very important.

With conventional superconducting magnets, known as 'wet' magnets, such an operation is only available for small sweep widths and requires liquid helium dewars to be on hand to refill the magnet. With cryogen free superconducting magnets it is possible to sweep from the negative maximum field value to the positive maximum field value without consuming any liquid helium with the minimum of fuss. High field EPR and wideline NMR systems were the first to be built utilising this technology. In addition, Cryogenic Limited have developed W-band EPR magnets that have an integrated VTI using a patented approach using a single coldhead for both the magnet and VTI. They have taken their expertise to the next level with their new high resolution solid state NMR magnet which can be swept or made persistent at any value of its field making a very versatile conveniently field settable superconducting magnet. Please continue reading for more information...

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Cryogenic Ltd Cryogen Free Variable Temperature Cryostat for EPR

Views of VTC for EPR at MPI Muelheim, Queen Mary and Westfield College and Univ St Andrews

The Cryogen Free Variable Temperature Cryostat for EPR (CF VTC for EPR) is a replacement for the CF 935 flow cryostat with a temperature range of 2 K to 300 K (typically with a lower base temperature). Benefits of the CF VTC for EPR include making experimental scheduling much more efficient and convenient in addition to reduced cryogen costs:

  1. continuous run times over several weeks with the ability to control the temperature accurately and stabily, during which multiple samples can be conveniently measure at cryogenic temperatures providing more efficient schedules without continuously swapping liquid helium dewars;
  2. no dependence on liquid helium availability avoiding significant scheduling problems;
  3. reduced complications associated with the allocation of cryogen costs between user groups for experiments allowing long term measurement schedules;
  4. routinely achieve lower stable base temperatures (~1.7 K), allowing more systems to be investigated;
  5. avoids Health and Safety Regulation restrictions on handling cryogens out of hours avoiding scheduling problems on weekends and liquid helium handling restrictions or when problems arise from the blockage of transfer lines.
Long VT run on CF VTC for EPR showing small temp offset and excellent stability
EPR based potentiometric titration courtesy of Maxie Roessler Queen Mary College, London

The plot above demonstrates the small difference between the set temperature and the actual sample temperature at below 1.4 K operation (achievable base temperatures will vary, cryostat to cryostat) and demonstrates the temperature stability at base temperature. This measurement was made by placing a cernox sensor into an EPR tube, making the EPR glass and placing in a MD5 flexline resonator.

The spectra to the left performed at Queen Mary College London demonstrates the convenience and ability to operate at a wide temperature range with excellent temperature stability. The figure depicts X-band continuous wave EPR spectra of a Fe-S cluster N2 in a mitrochondrial complex undergoing an EPR-based small volume potentiometric titration.

The EPR spectra are temperature sensitive with 25 K being chosen as the desired temperature to perform the titration. The convenience allowed a resonator with a much lower sample volume to be used requiring a much smaller amount of protein compared with previous studies.

This work has been published: see, John J. Wright, Enrico Salvadori, Hannah R. Bridges, Judy Hirst, Maxie M. Roessler, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 2016, 162, 201 (

The figure on the top of this section is of the CF VTCs for EPR at (i) the MPI for Energy Conversion, Mülheim, Germany (photo courtesy of Dr Ed Reijerse); (ii) Queen Mary & Westfield College, London, UK (photo courtesy of Dr Maxie Roessler); (iii) the University of St Andrews, Scotland (photo courtesy of Professor Graham M. Smith).

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Cryogenic Ltd Cryogen Free EPR Magnets

High-Field EPR Magnets

The first cryogen free 12 T EPR magnet, NCU, USA

Cryogen free superconducting magnet systems are charged with helium gas which is then circulated using a helium compressor through a coldhead and used to cool the magnet solenoid or Helmholtz pair, which is situated in a vacuum, via a thermal link. Cryogenic Ltd build magnets with permanently attached charging leads made from high Tc superconductors whose heat load is sufficiently within the capabilities of the cryocooler. This allows the easy control of the magnetic field over its entire available range and is ideal for EPR applications.

The cryogen free 12 T high field EPR magnet depicted to the left is installed at North Carolina State University and is one of the first such EPR magnets of its type. Due to the compact design of the cryogen free superconducting magnet it has a flat top allowing it to easily interface with the dilution refrigerator (also pictured) without the usual liquid helium or liquid nitrogen towers and this magnet has been used to probe quantum phenomena such as Luttinger-like fluids and Majorana particles. Note that PT cryocoolers, unlike GM cryocoolers, need to be mounted vertically or close to vertical.

The photo is courtesy of Professor Alex Smirnov, NCSU.

W-band EPR Magnets with Integrated Variable Temperature Inserts

The picture to the right is of the superconducting 6 T transverse field EPR magnet with integrated variable temperature insert (iVTI) and a flexline W-band resonator resting on it. The compact design of this magnet can allow the use of X and Q-band flexline resonators making this a very versatile magnet indeed. The performance of the iVTI is that of the CF VTC for EPR mentioned above. This magnet with iVTI makes use of Cryogenic Ltd's patented approach of having one cryocooler cooling two independent thermal circuits, one for the magnet and one for the iVTI. The magnet uses electricity more efficiently than the conventional 2 T resistive electromagnets and uses no liquid helium for performing low temperature studies.

The photo is courtesy of Professor Dariush Hinderberger, Martin‑Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg.

Cryogenic Ltd have made EPR superconducting magnets at field strengths as high as 14 T and bespoke EPR magnets such as a 5 T W-band magnet for EPR, NMR and DNP with iVTI depicted below manufactured for the Weizmann Institute of Science (photo courtesy of Dr Akiva Fentuch).

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6 T Cryogen free EPR magnet with iVTI, U Halle
Crogenic Ltd cryogen free 5 T W-band EPR, NMR and DNP magnet at the Weizmann Insitute of Science, Dr Akiva Feintuch

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Cryogenic Ltd Cryogen Free NMR Magnets

Cryogenic Ltd Cryogen Free high resolution 9.4 T superconducting magnet for solid state NMR, courtesy of Dr John V Hanna, University of Warwick

For high resolution solid state NMR

The picture to the right depicts a cryogen free prototypical 9.4 T/89 mm high resolution superconducting magnet situated at the University of Warwick as part of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) program with Cryogenic Ltd. Data have been acquired at 7.05 T and 9.4 T demonstrating the technology's applicability for magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR (see the spectra below).

This magnet can be energised at different persitent B0 values up to the rated maximum for full field dependent studies. In addition, the magnet can be swept through the full static quadrupole NMR spectrum making it simple and convenient to determine all of the relevant quadrupolar parameters, experimentally, bringing full B0 control to the NMR spectrometer.

In the case of solid state DNP NMR, the same magnet can be used for the high-resolution NMR component AND for measuring the full EPR spectrum of the spin label allowing for the determination of the optimal field value for the DNP NMR experiment...

400 MHz desktop cryogen free NMR magnet

Desktop NMR magnets

The picture to the right shows a 9.4 T compact desktop cryogen free superconducting NMR magnet, available up to 9.4 T with a 54 mm bore in either vertical (shown) or horizontal bore formats; supplied with or without 4-channel cryoshims.

At around 50 kg, the magnet can be placed at any persistent field up to its rated maximum and be run in swept mode making this an ideal desktop magnet for field dependent studies.

The pictures below depicts the non-integer spin quadrupolar MAS NMR spectra and 31P NMR of tricalcium phosphate at 12 kHz MAS and a plot of magnet stability from the prototype 9.4 T solid state high resolution NMR magnet (James F. MacDonald, and John Hanna, unpublished results, 2016).

Cryogen Free 400 MHz NMR Data, Dr John Hanna, U Warwick Cryogenic Ltd cryogen free 9.4 T high resolution NMR data, John Hanna U Warwick

In addition to the experimental benefits presented here there are others to consider:

  • No cryogenic experience is required;
  • Turn-key operation;
  • Overnight-cool down;
  • Low cost of ownership;
  • Minimal maintenance;
  • Minimal quench hazards (no loss of helium);
  • No liquid cryogens required, no dewars...

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Cryogenic Ltd Cryogen Free MRI Magnets

The cryogen free techologies developed by Cryogenic Ltd have also been applied to MRI magnets such as the 1.5 T/260 mm (depicted below left) and the 'Baby' 1 T/60 mm 'desktop' MRI magnet (depicted bottom).

The compact cryogen free superconducting MRI magnets are suitable for preclinical use and have also been provided for human head imaging as in the case of the magnet shown below right.

Cryogenic Ltd cryogen free MRI magnet Cryogenic Ltd cryogen free head imaging MRI magnet Cryogenic Ltd Baby MRI cryogen free magnet

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Other Cryogenic Ltd Cryogen Free Products

Cryogen free dissolution DNP magnets

Superconducting dissolution DNP NMR magnets are an excellent use of cryogen free technology. These are provided with an integrated variable temperature insert with a 30 mm bore and a base temperature < 2 K.

The image below is of a cryogen free dissolution DNP NMR magnet; these are available at maximum field values up to 10.1 T.

Cryogenic Ltd cryogen free 10.1 T dissolution DNP NMR magnet

Other cryogen free products

Cryogenic Ltd make a wide rangle of cryostats, superconducting magnet products and measurement systems, including 'wet' systems. In addition they have made many bespoke cryostats and magnets.

Cryogenic Ltd cryogen free 18 T measurement system with He3 insert - for Kosice

Some examples of the types of systems made include:

  1. DC SQUID measurement systems;
  2. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) systems;
  3. Vector magnets;
  4. Beamline magnets;
  5. Gyrotron magnets;
  6. 3He dilution refrigerator inserts to 300 mK;
  7. Various measurement probes;
  8. and many other systems!
Cryogenic Ltd 14 T Measurement system, with permission, Dr Andrey Kretinin, The National Graphene Institute, The University of Manchester

The image above is of a Cryogenic Ltd cryogen free 14 T measurement system (includes a variable temperature insert) installed at the University of Manchester, with permission, Dr Andrey Kretinin, The National Graphene Institute, The University of Manchester

CF VTC for EPR at the University of Manchester National EPR Facility and Service, photo courtesy of Dr Adam Broomfield